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The Porțile de Fier Museum, Porțile de FierCod 1471


The Hydro-energetic and Navigation system Porțile de Fier I, symbol of the Romanian energetic, proof of the Romanian – Yugoslavian collaboration, was inaugurated on the 16th of May 1972. The Museum of the Hydroelectric Power Plant was opened in 1976, presenting general characteristics of the Danube, the hydrological data, material testimonies of the human establishments from the area. The official start of the works at the Hydro-energetic and Navigation system Porțile de Fier I took place on the 7th of September 1964. This construction is symmetrical and identical, having two hydro-electric power plants separated by the down comer barrier, with a length of 441 m and 14 down comer wholes, the height of the barrier being of 74 m.

The formed barrier lake has over 2 billion cubic meters of water and a length of 120 km. The passing of the ships is made by the two flood gates built symmetrically towards the ax of the barrier. The flooding system is in two stages after the principle of the communicating ships (the difference of the water level is of 30 m). Before the construction of the Hydroelectric power plant from Porțile de Fier I, the Complex collective of the Romanian academy made complex researches in the area of the future barrier lake Porțile de Fier I.

A part of these researches were exploited within the exhibit the Area of the Defile Porțile de Fier was lived even from the Paleolithic. The researches established the fact that here were developed two new archeological cultures: Schela Cladobei in the Epi-Paleolithic and in Insula Banului in the first stage of the iron. The exhibit illustrates the fact that these human communities lived in this area from 30.000 years ago until our days. This fact is demonstrated by a rich ceramics belonging to different archeological cultures.

This area was argumented throughout the centuries by the military powers which acted on this segment of the Danube. In the Roman era, this area played an important role. Strengthened with numerous fortifications, this constituted the foundation for the fight against the Dacian state. In order to control the region, the Romans built a road on the southern border of the Danube, frequently carved in stone, and on the river they sent a military float. The present fire arms in the exhibit suggest the fight fought by the local population, helped by numerous fortifications against the invaders. The first monastic establishment from Wallachia was organized around the Vodița Monastery. Built by the Serbian monk Nicodim in the XIVth century, this constituted a burning point of Orthodoxy, which was opposed to the penetration of Catholicism in the area.

Following the forming of the barrier lake there were moved 7 localities on the Serbian border and 10 localities on the Romanian border (Orşova, Ada-Kaleh, Ogradena, Vârciorova, Tisoviţa, Plavişeviţa etc.). The incursion in the Museum from the Hydroelectric Power Plant Porțile de Fier I is ended with the descent in the Room of the turbines, where there can be admired the 6 Kaplan turbines, with an installed power of each of 194, 5 MW. The weight of a turbine is of 3680 t. The ax of the turbine has the length of 18 m and 71, 5 rotations per minute. At the inferior end of it there is found assembled the boss with the 6 paddles (20 t for each paddle. The impeller of the generator has a weight of 600 t and 14 m diameter. The average water drop is of 27, 5 m, and the necessary debit for each turbine is of 800 m3/ s.

The current brought by the turbines passes at the 6 transformers of raising the power, then there is sent to the connection stations. The Hydroelectric power plant from Porțile de Fier I is the biggest one from Romania, producing 50% from the country’s hydro-energy.

 



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